(Solution Document) Each question can have multiple answers Which of the following are TRUE regardin



Each question can have multiple answers

Which of the following are TRUE regarding Koch's postulates?

A. 

Treponema pallidum does not follow Koch's postulates because it cannot be cultured.

B. 

Diseases caused by multiple species acting together can follow Koch's postulates.

C. 

The microbe must be present in at least 50% of all cases of disease.

D. 

When mutating virulence gene using Koch's molecular postulate, the organism should become more virulent.

E. 

Some organisms cannot follow Koch's postulates because they can cause different or NO syptoms in some infected individuals.


Question 2 of 10 2.0 Points

Select all of the following that are true.

A. 

All strains of E. coli can infect the bladder.

B. 

Siderophores are iron binding proteins produced by the human blood system.

C. 

Type III secretion systems allow bacteria to inject effector proteins directly into a host cell.

D. 

C5a peptidase will inhibit  both the chemotatic and inflammatory responses generated by C5a .

E. 

Bacteria that have Fc receptors bind to the Fab regions of antibodies to inhibit opsonization.

F. 

Bacterial adhesins can be fimbriae, capsules, or cell wall proteins.


Question 3 of 10 2.0 Points Select all of the TRUE statements regarding normal microbiota.
A. Breast milk contains specific carbohydrates that are not for the baby, but is food for specific healthy gut microbes.
B. All bacteria in our microbiota are parasitic organisms.
C. Early and constant exposure to certain microbes promotes the production of Tregs.
D. The human body breaks down fiber into short-chain fatty acids to encourage normal microbiota.
E. 

By the end of the first year of growth, a one year old child has developed the microbiota of a normal healthy adult.

F. 

Thin/fit people generally have higher levels of Firmicutes phyla than obese people.

G. 

Antibiotics that eliminate normal vaginal floracan cause vulvogagninal candidiasis.


Question 4 of 10 2.0 Points Select all of the TRUE statements regarding principals of infectious disease:
A. 

Shigella species have a lower ID50 than Salmonella enterica.

B. You will start to exhibit signs and symptoms of disease as soon as you are infected by a pathogen. 
C. An infection that causes tetanus is due to both a local infection and a toxemia.
D. You will not be infectious once you have reached the convalescence stage.
E. Anyone colonized by a pathogen will exhibit signs and symptoms of disease.
F. Nausea is a symptom of an infectious disease.

Question 5 of 10 2.0 Points Pick all of the following which are true regarding toxins:
A. Both the A and B subunit of an A-B toxin is required for the binding of a specific toxin to specific target tissues.
B. Superantigens are the dominate pathogenic peptides produced and displayed by HLA molecules that can activate a wide array of T cytotoxic cells.
C. Toxoids are very small toxins that are produced by various organisms that cause tissue damage.
D. If a powerful exotoxin is produced, there may be not enough time to produce neutralizing antibodies quickly enough to stop the lethal effects of the toxin.
E. Only Gram-negative organisms are capable of producing Lipid A.
F. An extotoxin that causes diarrhea and vomiting is termed an enterotoxin.

Question 6 of 10 2.0 Points Select all of the TRUE statements regarding avoidance of host responses.
A. Shigella that has entered a host cell uses twitching movement to move to adjacent cells.
B. Mycobacterium recruits phagocytes to the site of infection because they have the ability to survive within phagocytes.
C. Some capsules inhibit obsonization by binding to host regulatory proteins which inhibit C3b. 
D. Being phagocytosed can allow bacteria to be transported to other areas of the body.
E. M proteins are capable of acting as a C5a peptidase.
F. Antibodies can enter the cell through the plasma membrane to target bacteria replicating in the cytoplasm.

Question 7 of 10 2.0 Points Which of the following are true regarding an immune response to microbes.
A. Bacteria making IgA protease would primarily be found in the mucous membranes.
B. Molecular mimicry can also cause the production of autoreactive antibodies that can cause an autoimmune response.
C. Superantigens cause a Thelper cell cytotoxic storm that can be lethal.
D. A-B toxins non-specifically activate a wide array of T cytotoxic cells that can eliminate them from the bloodstream.
E. Lipid A is an example of a molecule that can cause molecular mimicry.
F. Antibody responses can inhibit bacterial growth in organisms that are in a phagosome.

Question 8 of 10 2.0 Points

Which of the following are true regarding bacterial avoidance of antibodies? Please use your knowledge of immunology and not just the aspects focused on in the book (i.e. the avoidance of complement should NOT just assume only MAC formation).

A. 

IgA protease would inhibit the activation of complement.

B. 

Both Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Streptococcus  pneumoniae would be considered serum resistant.

C. 

Any antibody made to specific pili will be able to bind to all pili produced by Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

D. 

The bacterial Fc receptors would inhibit both opsonization as well as complement activation.

E. 

The bacterial FcR would inhibit all complement activation by both IgG and IgM.

F. 

We should mount a neutralizing antibody response to the hyaluronic acid capsule of Streptococcus pyogenes.


Question 9 of 10 2.0 Points Endotoxin vs exotoxins
A. The action of complement on a Gram-negative bacteria will eliminate the ability of endotoxin to activate an immune reaction. 
B. Systemic endotoxin leads to entotoxic shock.
C. Both endotoxin and exotoxins are heat labile.
D. Exotoxins can be made only by Gram-positive bacteria.
E. Exotoxins can generate T dependent responses, endotoxin cannot generate T cell responses.
F. Endotoxin can have beneficial effects in a localized region.

Question 10 of 10 2.0 Points Which of the following are true regarding viral and eukaryotic pathogens?
A. Some viruses have enzymes that inhibit the action of iAVPs.
B. RNA viruses can create are more antigenic variation due to poor proofreading ability.
C. Some viruses are capable of inhibiting p53 regulation of cellular apoptosis.
D. Dimorphic fungi can be both molds AND yeasts.
E. Antibodies are not effective at stopping a viral response.
F. Some viruses inhibit both NK and Tc cells by making fake MHC class II molecules.
G. Generally, all parasitic infections cause very similar signs and symptoms.
H. Most dermatophyte infections cause deep penetrating wounds.


 







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