(Solution Document) Question: Question 1 Which of the following is NOT one of the three fundamental


Question 1 

Which of the following is NOT one of the three fundamental features of science?

Question 1 options:

empirical questions

public knowledge

mathematical equations

systematic empiricism

Question 2 

A set of beliefs can be said to be pseudoscientific if it lacks one or more of the three features of science and _____.

Question 2 options:

its adherents claim or imply that it is scientific

it has been discredited by scientific research

it seems "crazy"

it refers to phenomena that cannot be directly observed

Question 3 

Research questions in psychology can come from which of the following?

Question 3 options:

previous research

informal observations

practical problems to be solved

all of the above


Question 4 

Which of the following is a categorical variable?

Question 4 options:

eye color


number of lifetime sexual partners

shoe size

Question 5 

A research methods student conducts a study on the relationship between people's level of extroversion and the number of close friends they have. She computes Pearson's r, which comes out to be - 1.70. Which of the following is most clearly true?

Question 5 options:

The relationship between the two variables is weak.

More extroverted people have fewer friends.

She ought to use a bar graph to display her results.

She made an error in computing Pearson's r.

Question 6 

When you want to show that Variable X has a direct effect on Variable Y, what is the best kind of study to conduct?

Question 6 options:

a nonexperimental study

an experiment

an observational study

a survey

Question 7 

The relationship between people's heights and weights is positive.

Question 7 options:



Question 8 

In a negative relationship, higher scores on one variable are associated with lower scores on another variable.

Question 8 options:



Question 9 

Pearson's r cannot be negative.

Question 9 options:



Question 10 

In Milgram's famous study, who was the confederate?

Question 10 options:

the person being shocked

the experimenter

the person doing the shocking

none of the above

Question 11 

Which of the following occurred in the infamous Tuskegee syphilis study?

Question 11 options:

Research participants were told they had syphilis even though they did not to see how they would react.

Research participants were denied treatment for their syphilis.

Research participants were injected with syphilis bacteria.

Research participants were give experimental treatments for syphilis.

Question 12 

Research on the effectiveness of normal educational activities would generally be categorized as which of the following?

Question 12 options:


minimal risk

at risk

none of the above

Question 13 

Measuring characteristics of potential participants to identify those who may be at risk of harm in the study is called _____.

Question 13 options:



informed consent

risk reduction

Question 14 

The difference between phenomena and theories is essentially the same as the difference between which of the following?

Question 14 options:

observations and models

correlational studies and experiments

significant and nonsignificant results

models and hypotheses

Question 15 

How does a framework differ from a theory?

Question 15 options:

A framework is usually more specific than a theory.

A framework is usually more general than a theory.

A framework cannot be tested but a theory can.

A framework can be tested but a theory cannot.

Question 16 

For every _____ there are many plausible _____.

Question 16 options:

fact; phenomena

theory; researchers

phenomenon; theories

researcher; variables

Question 17 

As a general rule, every phenomenon has which of the following?

Question 17 options:

no real explanation

one clear explanation

many plausible explanations

one discoverer

Question 18 

Theories in evolutionary psychology tend to take which approach?

Question 18 options:





Question 19 

A theory that explains a behavior primarily in terms of why it happens is which of the following?

Question 19 options:

a mechanistic theory

a typology

a functional theory

a hypothesis

Question 20 (1 point)

The general approach that scientists use to create and test theories is called which of the following?

Question 20 options:

the functional-mechanistic method

the theory-model-phenomenon approach

the quasi-logical hypothesis

the hypothetico-deductive method

Question 21 

What is the first thing that you should do in constructing a new theory?

Question 21 options:

Create a set of mathematical equations that might account for the phenomena of interest.

Understand the phenomena of interest in detail, along with any existing theories of them.

Conduct at least four to six new empirical studies.

Decide which type of theory you want to construct.

Question 22 

Measurement is best defined as which of the following?

Question 22 options:

directly comparing one individual to a standard reference individual

the assignment of scores to individuals so the scores represent some characteristic of the individuals

the use of an established measuring instrument such as a ruler or scale to describe an individual

an objective method of counting individuals

Question 23 

 Which of the following is the best example of a construct?

Question 23 options:


number of siblings


annual income

Question 24 

What is it called when a researcher measures the same construct in different ways?

Question 24 options:

multiple measurement

exploratory research

inconsistent assessment

converging operations

Question 25 

There is a single best conceptual definition of every psychological construct.

Question 25 options:



Question 26 

There is a single best way to measure every psychological construct.

Question 26 options:




Question 27 

Face validity is the extent to which a psychological measure appears to measure the construct of interest.

Question 27 options:



Question 28 

A Cronbach's alpha of .90 would indicate good internal consistency.

Question 28 options:



Question 29 

A psychological measure is valid to the extent that the scores it produces are consistent over time.

Question 29 options:



Question 30 

Psychological constructs can be observed directly by looking or listening.

Question 30 options:



Question 31 

What are the two defining features of an experiment?

Question 31 options:

control of extraneous variables; statistical analysis of the results

statistical analysis of the results; a comparison of two groups

a comparison of two groups; manipulation of an independent variable

manipulation of an independent variable; control of extraneous variables

Question 32 

Why are confounding variables bad?

Question 32 options:

They provide an alternative explanation for any observed difference between conditions.

They reduce internal validity.

They make it difficult to tell if the independent variable was responsible for the effect on the dependent variable.

all of the above

Question 33

Why do researchers randomly assign participants to conditions?

Question 33 options:

to control extraneous variables

to ensure that they find a strong statistical relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable

to discover whether there is a placebo effect

to avoid fatigue effects

Question 34 

Imagine that you are a participant in an experiment on the effects of morning exercise on mathematics performance. If this study uses a within-subjects design, which of the following would you do?

Question 34 options:

One day you take a math test after having exercised in the morning; another day you take a math test after not having exercised in the morning.

Either you exercise in the morning and then take a math test or you do not exercise in the morning and then take a math test.
c. You eat a healthy breakfast consisting of

You eat a healthy breakfast consisting of milk, juice, toast, and eggs.

You take a math test and then tell the researcher whether or not you exercised that morning.

Question 35 

Imagine an experiment with one independent variable: noise level (quiet vs. noisy). If the researcher is using a between-subjects design and wants to have 20 participants per condition, how many participants will he need all together?

Question 35 options:





Question 36 

What is the main advantage of conducting an experiment using a within-subjects design rather than a between-subjects design?

Question 36 options:

A within-subjects design eliminates the need for pilot testing.

A within-subjects design controls more extraneous variables.

A within-subjects design does not require manipulation of an independent variable.

A within-subjects design prevents carryover effects.

Question 37 

A researcher is conducting a study in which the dependent variable is mental concentration. If it is a within-subjects design with lots of different conditions, then which of the following is most likely to be a problem for the researcher?

Question 37 options:

practice effect

fatigue effect

context effect

floor effect

Question 38 

Experimenters manipulate independent variables and control extraneous variables.

Question 38 options:



Question 39 

In a between-subjects experiment, each participant is tested in only one condition.

Question 39 options:



Question 40 

In a within-subjects experiment, each participant is tested in more than one condition.

Question 40 options:



Question 41 

Researcher Robert Rosenthal is known for his work on which of the following?

Question 41 options:

the effect of smiling on helping

cultural differences in time perception

social anxiety

experimenter expectancy effects

Question 42 

What is the defining feature of nonexperimental research?

Question 42 options:

It is about personality and individual differences.

It lacks the manipulation of an independent variable, random assignment, or both.

It involves only one variable.

It has high external validity.

Question 43 

Which of the following is a reason to conduct nonexperimental research?

Question 43 options:

The researcher is interested in thinking.

The researcher wants to maximize the internal validity of the study.

The researcher wants to avoid carryover effects.

It would be unethical to manipulate the independent variable.

Question 44 

Which of the following is a type of nonexperimental research?

Question 44 options:

qualitative studies

correlational studies


all of the above

Question 45 

Which of the following is the defining feature of correlational research?

Question 45 options:

An independent variable is manipulated while extraneous variables are controlled.

One variable is measured and described.

Research participants are interviewed in depth about their experiences.

Two variables are measured and the relationship between them is assessed.

Question 46 

Coding of participant behaviors is generally an important part of which of the following?

Question 46 options:

archival data collection

sport psychology

quasi-experimental research

naturalistic observation

Question 47 

Archival data would be least likely to be used in which of the following?

Question 47 options:

an experiment

a correlational study

a qualitative study

a single-variable study

Question 48 

Qualitative research is meant to do which of the following?

Question 48 options:

generate novel research questions

explore people's "lived experience"

address broad questions

all of the above

Question 49 

Which of the following is a common data collection method in qualitative research?

Question 49 options:

administering questionnaires with rating scale responses

taking multiple physiological measures

using computer simulations

giving unstructured interviews

Question 50

Data analysis in qualitative research is most likely to include which of the following?

Question 50 options:

means and standard deviations

inferential statistics

unfalsifiable theories

detailed examples of participant responses

Question 51 

What are the two main characteristics of survey research?

Question 51 options:

large random samples and self-report measures

self-report measures and face-to-face interviews

face-to-face interviews and statistical analysis

statistical analysis and large random samples

Question 52 

"Is there anything else you would like to tell us about?" is an example of an open-ended item.

Question 52 options:




Question 53 

Closed-ended items provide a set of response options for respondents to choose from.

Question 53 options:



Question 54 

A researcher who stands in a shopping mall and approaches anyone who looks to him like they would complete a survey is using random sampling.

Question 54 options:



Question 55 (1 point)

Researchers are most likely to use open-ended items under which of the following conditions?

Question 55 options:

They have a specific construct that they want to measure.

They do not have preconceived ideas about how people will respond.

They want their data to be quick and easy to analyze.

They are conducting their survey over the Internet.

Question 56

The BRUSO model is a model of which of the following?

Question 56 options:

how people respond to survey questionnaire items

the process of administering a survey

good survey questionnaire items

none of the above

Question 57 

Survey research tends to use which of the following?

Question 57 options:

nonrepresentative sampling

convenience sampling

nonprobability sampling

probability sampling

Question 58 

What is the best way to address the problem of nonresponse bias?

Question 58 options:

ignore the nonresponders when analyzing the data

force everyone to respond

do everything possible to maximize response rates

write unbiased questionnaire items

Question 59 

What are the two main functions of the introduction to a survey questionnaire?

Question 59 options:

to encourage participation and establish informed consent

to establish the legitimacy of the survey and put respondents at ease

to inform the respondents of their rights and protect the researcher from lawsuits

to hide the true purpose of the survey and to establish rapport with respondents

Question 60 

High-level APA style consists of rules about grammar, spelling, punctuation, and formatting.

Question 60 options:



Question 61

An APA-style abstract is usually about two pages long.

Question 61 options:




Question 62 

Which of the following presents the major sections of an APA style empirical research report in the correct order?

Question 62 options:

Introduction, Method, Results, Discussion

Method, Results, Discussion, Abstract

Abstract, Discussion, Method, Results

Method, Introduction, Discussion, Results

Question 63 

The two broad themes of high-level APA style writing are that it is _____ and _____.

Question 63 options:

technical; thought provoking

creative; engaging

formal; straightforward

interesting; controversial

Question 64

Which of the following is an example of a low-level rule of APA style?

Question 64 options:

Avoid personally insulting other researchers.

Use number words for numbers lower than 10.

An empirical research report should start with a title page.

Write in a simple and clear manner.

Question 65 

The title of an APA style research report should generally be which of the following?

Question 65 options:

typed in all capital letters

cute and attention grabbing

highly technical

no more than 12 words long


Question 66 

The literature review of an APA style introduction section should do which of the following?

Question 66 options:

cite and discuss the three most important studies on the current topic

provide an exhaustive list of all research conducted on the current topic

make an argument for why the current research question is worth addressing

discuss only new research that has been published in the past five years


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